Recruitment Privacy Policy


1. What is this Privacy Notice about?

The Interchain group (also «we», «us») collects and processes personal data that concern you but also other individuals («third parties»). We use the word «data» here interchangeably with «personal data».

The «Interchain group» means the Interchain Foundation and its subsidiaries Interchain AG and Interchain GmbH.

«Personal data» means data relating to identified or identifiable individuals, which means that the relevant data, in combination with additional data, make it possible to draw conclusions about the identity of these individuals. «Sensitive personal data» are a subset of personal data that is specially protected under applicable data protection law. These include, for example, data revealing racial or ethnic origin, health data, religious or philosophical beliefs, biometric data for identification purposes, and information relating to trade union membership. In Section 3, you will find information about the data we process in accordance with this Privacy Notice. «Processing» means any operation that is performed on personal data, such as collection, storage, use, alteration, disclosure and erasure.

In this Privacy Notice, we describe what we do with your data when you use our job application form on the website («recruitment portal») or otherwise interact with us in relation with a job opening posted on our recruitment portal, a job application or a potential employment contract.

This Privacy Notice does not apply to our employees, contractors or clients, visitors of its websites or to other personal data that the Interchain group collects for purposes other than those defined in this Privacy Notice. Our general website privacy policy is available here: This Privacy Notice also does not apply to the processing of personal data by LinkedIn Corp, and Learning Technologies Group Plc and its subsidiaries (including Breezy) for their own purposes, as described in their privacy notices, which are available here and here: When appropriate we will provide a just-in-time notice to cover any additional processing activities not mentioned in this Privacy Notice.

If you disclose data to us or share data with us about other individuals such as family members, co-workers, supervisors, former employers, etc., we assume you are authorized to do so and that the relevant data is accurate. When you share data about others with us, you confirm that. Please make sure that these individuals have been informed about this Privacy Notice.

This Privacy Notice is aligned with the EU General Data Protection Regulation («GDPR»), the Swiss Data Protection Act («DPA») and the revised Swiss Data Protection Act («revDPA»). However, the application of these laws depends on each individual case.

2. Who is the controller for processing your data?

The Interchain Foundation, Gartenstrasse 4, 6300 Zug, Switzerland (the «Interchain Foundation») is the main controller with respect to the collection and processing of your data on the recruitment portal and related systems insofar as operated for the Interchain group.

Your primary point of contact for data protection concerns and to exercise your rights under Section 11 is as follows:

Interchain Foundation
Gartenstrasse 4
CH-6300 Zug

3. What data do we process?

We process various categories of data about you, including current but also previous versions where information changes over time. The main categories of data are the following:

  • Technical data: When you use our recruitment portal, we collect the IP address of your terminal device and other technical data in order to ensure the functionality and security of these offerings. This data includes logs with records of the use of our systems. We generally keep technical data for 12 months. In order to ensure the functionality of these offerings, we may also assign an individual code to you or your terminal device (for example as a cookie, see Section 12). Technical data as such does not permit us to draw conclusions about your identity. However, technical data may be linked with other categories of data (and potentially with your person) in relation with user accounts, registrations, access controls or pre-contractual steps in the context of an employment contract (for example the submission of your job application).

Technical data includes the IP address and information about the operating system of your terminal device, the date, region and time of use and the type of browser that you use to access our electronic offerings. This may help us to provide an appropriate layout of our recruitment portal or, for example, to display a sub-page for your region. We know through which provider you access our offerings (and therefore also the region) because of the IP address, but usually this does not tell us who you are. However, this changes for example when you create a user account, because personal data can then be linked with technical data (for example, we can know the browser you use to access an account through our website). Examples of technical data include protocols («logs») that are created in our systems (for example the log of user logins to our website).

  • Communication data: When you are in contact with us via the contact or application form, by email, telephone or chat, or by letter or other means of communication, we collect the data exchanged between you and us, including your contact details and the metadata of the communication. If we record telephone conversations or (video) conferences, we will tell you specifically. We generally keep this data for 12 months from the last exchange between us. This period may be longer where required for evidentiary purposes, to comply with legal or contractual requirements, or for technical reasons. Emails in personal mailboxes and written correspondence are generally kept for at least 2 years. Chats are generally stored for 2 years.

Communication data is your name and contact details, the means, place and time of the communication and usually also its contents (i.e. the contents of emails, letters, chats, etc.). This data may also include information about third parties. For identification purposes, we may also process your ID card number or a password set by you.

  • Job application data: When you apply for a position with us, we collect and process the data that you submit to us in your application materials along with your job application, for example, your name and contact details, information about your academic background, qualifications, and professional experience. We generally collect this data directly from you in your application materials, such as your curriculum vitae, cover letter, diplomas, certificates, academic transcript of records and recommendation letters. Depending on the type of position advertised, we may also receive this data from recruitment and placement agencies that you have provided to them in the context of a job search. If your application is successful and you accept an offer of employment from us, this data that we have collected from you during the pre-employment period will become part of your personnel file with us and will be kept and processed in accordance with the separate privacy notice for employees. If your application is unsuccessful, we generally keep this data for 12 months from the date of notification of the rejection decision. This period may be longer in certain circumstances, for example if you have consented to a longer retention period so that we can inform you of future employment opportunities with us. In that case, we will generally keep the data for 2 years from the notification of the rejection decision.

Job application data includes data such as name, mailing address, e-mail address, telephone number and other contact details, photograph, gender, date of birth, nationality, passport number, immigration status, name of relatives working in the Interchain group, salary requirements, function, membership in professional associations; moreover, information on your academic background, diplomas, certificates, academic transcript of records, technical skills, language skills, employment history (including job titles, salary and working hours), reference information from third parties (to the extent permitted), and extracurricular activities.

Depending on the type of position, we may ask you to provide us with additional information for compliance purposes, such as a work permit, a clean criminal record, an extract from the debt collection register, a driving license and a medical certificate confirming your ability to work. The medical certificate is sensitive personal data, for which we will ask you for separate consent to obtain it. The criminal record may be only processed insofar local law permits us to do so.

  • Publicly available data: We may collect certain personal data about you online to the extent that you have made this information publicly available and it is relevant for the job opening at issue or otherwise your assessment as a professional. We generally obtain this information from public sources. For example, we may find your profile on professional social media websites (such as LinkedIn and Xing) and collect the information made available through this channel. We generally keep this data for 12 months from the end of the relevant recruitment process.

Publicly available data includes data such as professional connections on a social media platform, activity on the platform (posts, comments, «likes»), photographs, videos (for example attended or organized webinars, conferences), skills, endorsements, licenses, certifications, publications, and interests (pages, companies and people «followed» on the platform).

  • Reference data: If, in your application, you mentioned persons with whom or for whom you have worked in the past, such as former supervisors, co-workers, we can contact them by email, telephone, letter or other means of communication, or meet with them in person, in order to obtain references about you. We will only contact these persons if you have specifically provided us with their names and contact details for the purpose of your application. Again, we assume you are authorized to do so and that the relevant data you have provided us is accurate. If you are already employed by us and apply for another internal position, we may request references from your current supervisors and co-workers. We generally keep this data for 12 months from the end of the relevant recruitment process, except in the event of an internal application, where the data is already known to us and kept in accordance with our separate privacy notice for employees.

Reference data includes data such as information about your relationship with the referral person, your personality, abilities, qualifications, contributions to the company, work ethic and job performance.

  • Candidate assessment data: During the recruitment process, we collect data that serves to determine your suitability for the employment position, in addition to the job application data, the publicly available data and reference data. This includes the notes we take during and after our interviews with you, as well as our internal exchanges and discussions about your suitability for the position. If you are already employed by us and apply for another internal position, we may use information from your personnel file to supplement the information you provide to us with your application in order to assess your suitability for the new internal position. We generally keep this data for 12 months from the end of the relevant recruitment process, except in the event of an internal application, where the data is already known to us and kept in accordance with our separate privacy notice for employees.

Candidate assessment data includes data such as information on the personal impressions you made during your interviews (for example personality traits, engagement in the discussion), your ability to communicate and express yourself, your ability to react to fictitious situations and propose creative solutions, as well as information on your analytical and writing skills.

  • Behavioral and preference data: Depending on our relationship with you, we try to get to know you better and to tailor our services and offers to you, for example on the recruitment portal. For this purpose we collect and process data about your behavior and preferences. We do so by evaluating information about your behavior in our domain, and we may also supplement this information with third party information, including from public sources. Based on this data, we can for example determine the likelihood that you will be interested in certain job openings. The data processed for this purpose is already known to us (for example where and when you apply for job openings), or we collect it by recording your behavior (for example how you navigate our recruitment portal). We anonymize or delete this data when it is no longer relevant for the purposes pursued, which may be – depending on the nature of the data – between 2-3 weeks and 12 months (for job preferences). This period may be longer for evidentiary purposes, to comply with legal or contractual requirements, or for technical reasons. We describe how tracking works in Section 12.

Behavioral data is information about certain actions, such as your response to electronic communications (for example if and when you have opened an email) or your location, as well as your interaction with our social media profiles.

Preference data tells us what your needs are, which services or job openings might be of interest to you or when and how you will likely respond to messages from us. We obtain this information from the analysis of existing data, such as behavioral data, so that we can get to know you better, tailor our offers more precisely to you and generally improve our offers. To improve the quality of our analyses, we may combine this data with other data that we also obtain from third parties, such as publicly available sources such as the Internet, for example with information about your professional qualifications, publications and anonymous information from statistical offices.

Behavioral and preference data may be analyzed on a personally identifiable basis (for example to show you personalized advertising), but also on a non-identifiable basis (for example for market research). Behavioral and preference data may also be combined with other data.

Much of the data set out in this Section 3 is provided to us by you (through application forms, your application documents, in relation to communication with us, when you use the recruitment portal, etc.). You are not obliged or required to disclose data to us except in individual cases (legal obligations). If you wish to enter into an employment relationship with us or use our services (in particular on the recruitment portal), you must also provide us with certain data, in particular job application data, reference data and – as may be the case on the recruitment portal – registration data, in order to be able to submit your application and be eligible as a candidate for the advertised position. Application to certain positions may be available only through the recruitment portal. When using our recruitment portal, the processing of technical data cannot be avoided. Depending on the job position at issue, we will also insist on collecting publicly available data, reference data and candidate assessment data if you want us to proceed with your job application. However, in the case of behavioral and preference data, you generally have the option of objecting or not giving consent.

We provide certain services to you only if you provide us with registration data, because we or our contractual partners wish to know who uses our services, including our recruitment portal, because it is a technical requirement or because we wish to communicate with you. Additionally, we can only consider your application if you provide us with the requested job application data. If you do not provide us with the data necessary for the position you apply for, this may result in our inability to consider your candidacy. In this case, however, before rejecting your candidacy, we will give you the opportunity to provide us with the missing information or documents within a set period of time. Further, during the process of assessing you as a candidate for a particular position and depending on the position, we will also have to assess your suitability for the position by collecting publicly available data (for example to verify your statements made and understand your qualifications), reference data or have you undergo a further assessment resulting in the collection of assessment data and other data. Similarly, we can only submit a response to a request from you if we process communication data and – if you communicate with us online – possibly also technical data. Also, the use of our website is not possible without us receiving technical data.

As far as it is not unlawful we also collect data from public sources (for example the internet, including professional social media websites) or receive data from other companies within the Interchain group, and from other third parties.

4. For what purposes do we process your data?

We process your data for the purposes explained below. These purposes and their objectives represent the interests of us and potentially of third parties. You can find further information on the legal basis of our processing in Section 5.

We process your data for purposes related to communication with you, in particular in relation to responding to inquiries and with the exercise of your rights (Section 11) and to enable us to contact you in case of queries. For this purpose, we use mostly communication data in relation to our recruitment portal. We keep this data to document our communication with you, for quality assurance and for follow-up inquiries.

The above includes all purposes in relation with which you and we communicate, whether in the context of your application, authentication where the recruitment portal is used, or for quality assurance. We further process communication data to enable us to communicate with you by e-mail and telephone, as well as other means of communication. Communication with you usually takes place in relation to other processing purposes, for example to enable us to arrange an interview with you, to inform you of the outcome of your application or to respond to an access request. Our processing also serves to document the communication and its contents.

We process your data in order to determine whether you are a suitable candidate for the position you have applied for and to decide whether we would like to enter into an employment relationship with you. For this purpose, we mostly use job application data, publicly available data, reference data, and candidate assessment data. We process this data to progress your application through the different recruitment stages, to verify the qualifications information you have provided, to document our recruitment process and maintain employment records, as well as to document our decision-making process and make an informed recruitment decision.

The above include all purposes in relation with the pre-contractual steps necessary for the purposes of entering into an employment contract with you, such as informing the competent persons at the individual Interchain group company of your application (for example the hiring manager, hiring team members, the employees of the human resources department, etc.), making an informed decision to shortlist you for an interview, arranging interviews with you, obtaining relevant references about you, verifying the qualifications information you have provided and, if you application is successful, to enter into an employment relationship with you.

Most of the data we process is directly obtained from you in your application documents. Certain data, however, is obtained from third parties (for example, referees, supervisors, co-workers) or from public sources (for example, professional social media networks, such as LinkedIn and Xing). Again, we process this data to assess your suitability for the position you have applied for.

We further process your data for market research, to improve our services on the recruitment portal, for developing our hiring process and internal statistical purposes.

We strive to continuously improve our services on the recruitment portal and to respond quickly to changing needs. We therefore analyze, for example, how you navigate through our recruitment portal and how new layouts of such recruitment portal might look. This helps us understand the market acceptance of existing services on the recruitment portal and the market potential of new services on the recruitment portal. To this end, we process in particular behavioral data and preference data, but also communication data and other information, for example from social media, the Internet and other public sources. We also want to understand the employment market and we want to improve the way we identify and employ new workers. This may require us to use job application data, publicly available data and candidate assessment data to analyze it and create statistics. We also create Key Performance Indicator (KPI) statistics that enable, for example, to determine the duration of the vacant position. We use pseudonymized or anonymized data for these purposes, to the extent possible.

We may also process your data for security and access control purposes.

We continuously review and improve the appropriate security of our IT and other infrastructure. Like all companies, we cannot exclude data security breaches with absolute certainty, but we do our best to reduce the risks. We therefore process data, for example, for monitoring, inspecting, analyzing and testing our networks and IT infrastructures, for system and error checks, for documentation purposes and in the context of backups. Access controls include controlling access to electronic systems (for example logging into user accounts on the recruitment portal).

We process personal data to comply with laws, directives and recommendations from authorities and internal regulations Compliance»).

This includes implementing security concepts to prevent fraud and other criminal offences. We may also be required to make certain clarifications about you or to report to the authorities in certain cases. Disclosure, information or reporting obligations, for example, in connection with supervisory authorities and archiving obligations and the prevention, detection and investigation of criminal offenses and other violations. This also includes receiving and processing complaints and other reports, monitoring communications, disclosing documents to an authority if we have sufficient reasons to do so or are legally obliged to do so. For all these purposes, we process in particular your job application data and communication data, but also, under certain circumstances, behavioral data and data from the category of «other data». The legal obligations may arise under European, English and Swiss law or other regulations to which we are subject, as well as self-regulations, industry standards, our own «corporate governance» and instructions and requests from authorities.

We also process data for the purposes of our risk management and as part of our corporate governance, including business organization and development.

For these purposes, we process in particular master data, contract data, and technical data, but also behavioral and communication data. For example, as part of our financial management, we need to monitor our accounts receivable and accounts payable, and we need to avoid becoming victims of crime and abuse, which may require us to analyze data for relevant patterns of such activities. We may also conduct profiling and create and process profiles for these purposes and to protect you and us from criminal or abusive activity (see also Section 6). In the context of planning our resources and organizing our operations, we may need to evaluate and process data relating to the use of our services and other offerings or share information about them with others (for example outsourcing partners), which may also include your data. The same applies with respect to services provided to us by third parties. As part of our business development, we may sell businesses, parts of businesses or companies to others or acquire them from others or enter into partnerships, which may also result in the exchange and processing of data (including from you, for example as a customer or supplier or as a supplier representative).

We may process your data for further purposes, for example as part of our internal processes and administration and for quality assurance purposes and training.

These further purposes include, for example, administrative purposes (such as managing job application data, reference data, and data archiving, and testing, managing and continuously improving IT infrastructure), protecting our rights (for example to enforce claims in or out of court, and before authorities in the EEA, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and abroad, and to defend us against claims, for example by preserving evidence, conducting legal assessments and participating in court or administrative proceedings) and evaluating and improving internal processes. This also includes safeguarding other legitimate interests that cannot be named exhaustively.

5. On what basis do we process your data?

Where we ask for your consent for certain processing activities, we will inform you separately about the relevant processing purposes. You may withdraw your consent at any time by providing us written notice (by mail) or, unless otherwise noted or agreed, by sending an email to us; see our contact details in Section 2. For withdrawing consent for online tracking, see Section 12. Where you have a user account on our recruitment portal, you may also withdraw consent or also contact us through such recruitment portal. Once we have received notification of withdrawal of consent, we will no longer process your information for the purpose(s) you consented to, unless we have another legal basis to do so. Withdrawal of consent does not, however, affect the lawfulness of the processing based on the consent prior to withdrawal. If you withdraw consent for processing personal data we require for assessing or employing you for a particular position, we will no longer be able to continue with your application for such position.

Where we do not ask for consent for processing, the processing of your personal data relies on the requirement of the processing for initiating the necessary steps to enter into an employment contract with you or on our or a third-party legitimate interest in the particular processing, in particular in pursuing the purposes and objectives set out in Section 4 and in implementing related measures. Our legitimate interests also include compliance with legal regulations insofar as this is not already recognized as a legal basis under the applicable data protection law (for example under the laws in the EEA, the United Kingdom and Switzerland).

Where we receive sensitive personal data (for example health data, data about political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs, and biometric data for identification purposes), we may process your data on other legal basis, for example, in the event of a dispute, as required in relation with a potential litigation or for the enforcement or defense of legal claims. In some cases, other legal bases may apply, which we will communicate to you separately as necessary.

6. What applies in the case of profiling?

We may create a profile relating to you («profiling») based on your data (Section 3) for the purposes set out in Section 4, where we wish to determine preference data, but also in order to detect misuse and security risks, to perform statistical analysis, for operational planning and to assess your suitability for a job. We may also create profiles for these purposes, i.e. we may combine behavioral and preference data, but also master data, contract data and technical data relating to you in order to better understand you as a person with your various interests and other characteristics. We pay attention to the proportionality and reliability of the results and take measures against misuse of these profiles.

7. With whom do we share your data?

In relation with the potential employment relationship between you and us, the recruitment portal, our legal obligations or otherwise in relation with the protection of our legitimate interests and the other purposes set out in Section 4, we may disclose your personal data to third parties, in particular to the following categories of recipients:

  • Group companies: A list of our group companies can be found in Section 1.

The group companies have access particularly to your job application data, publicly available data, reference data, candidate assessment data, and registration data.

  • Service providers: We work with service providers in the EEA, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and abroad who process your data on our behalf or as joint controllers with us or who receive data about you from us as separate controllers (for example IT providers, talent acquisition service providers).
  • Former and future employers, other organizations referred to in your CV: We may also disclose your data to former employers when you apply for a job with us (for example, reference information) or to future employers when you apply for a new job. These former and future employers act as separate controllers. The same applies with other organizations we may contact for validating your job application data.
  • Authorities: We may disclose personal data to agencies, courts and other authorities in the EEA, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and abroad, if we are legally obliged or entitled to make such disclosures or if it appears necessary to protect our interests. These authorities act as separate controllers.
  • Other persons: This means other cases where interactions with third parties follow from the purposes set out in Section 4. Where these other persons determine the purposes and means of the processing and process your data for their own purposes, they act as separate controllers.

All these categories of recipients may involve third parties, so that your data may also be disclosed to them. We can restrict the processing by certain third parties (for example IT providers), but not by others (for example public authorities).

8. Is your personal data disclosed abroad?

As explained in Section 7, we disclose data to other parties. These are not all located in Switzerland. Your data may therefore be processed both in Europe and, in exceptional cases, in any country in the world.

If a recipient is located in a country without adequate statutory data protection, we require the recipient to undertake to comply with data protection (for this purpose, we use the revised European Commission’s standard contractual clauses), unless the recipient is subject to a legally accepted set of rules to ensure data protection and unless we cannot rely on an exemption. An exception may apply for example in case of legal proceedings abroad, but also in cases of overriding public interest or if the performance of a contract requires disclosure, if you have consented or if data has been made available generally by you and you have not objected against the processing.

Please note that data exchanged via the internet is often routed through third countries. Your data may therefore be sent abroad even if the sender and recipient are in the same country.

9. How long do we process your data?

We process your data for as long as our processing purposes, the legal retention periods and our legitimate interests in documentation and keeping evidence require it or storage is a technical requirement. You will find further information on the respective storage and processing periods for the individual data categories in Section 3, and for cookies in Section 12. If there are no contrary legal or contractual obligations, we will delete or anonymize your data once the storage or processing period has expired as part of our usual processes.

Documentation and evidence purposes include our interest in documenting the recruitment processes and our decision-making process in relation to the recruitment processes, as well as our interactions and other facts in view of legal claims, inconsistencies, IT and infrastructure security requirements and demonstrating good corporate governance and compliance. Retention may be a technical requirement if certain data cannot be separated from other data and we therefore need to keep it with it.

10. How do we protect your data?

We take appropriate security measures in order to maintain the required security of your personal data and ensure its confidentiality, integrity and availability, and to protect it against unauthorized or unlawful processing, and to mitigate the risk of loss, accidental alteration, unauthorized disclosure or access.

Technical and organizational security measures may include encryption and pseudonymization of data, logging, access restrictions, keeping backup copies, giving instructions to our employees, entering confidentiality agreements, and monitoring. Specifically, we take appropriate organizational measures to ensure that our employees have access to your data on a need-to-know basis, to the extent necessary for the purposes described in this Privacy Notice and the activities of the employees concerned. This includes, in particular, the hiring manager and the hiring team members at the individual Interchain group company, the employees of the human resources department and support areas, such as the administrative and IT departments. Our employees act in accordance with our instructions and are bound to confidentiality and discretion when processing your data.

We protect your data that is sent through our website in transit by appropriate encryption. However, we can only secure areas in our control. We also require our data processors to take appropriate security measures. However, security risks can never be excluded completely; residual risks are unavoidable.

11. What are your rights?

Applicable data protection laws grant you the right to object to the processing of your data in some circumstances, in particular for processing activities on the basis of legitimate interest.

To help you control the processing of your personal data, you have the following rights in relation with our data processing, depending on the applicable data protection law:

  • The right to request information from us as to whether and what data we process from you;
  • The right to have us correct data if it is inaccurate;
  • The right to request erasure of data;
  • The right to request that we provide certain personal data in a commonly used electronic format or transfer it to another controller;
  • The right to withdraw consent, where our processing is based on your consent; and
  • The right to receive, upon request, further information that is helpful for the exercise of these rights.

If you wish to exercise the above-mentioned rights in relation with us (or with one of our group companies), please contact us in writing, at our premises or, unless otherwise specified or agreed, by email; you will find our contact details in Section 2. In order for us to be able to prevent misuse, we need to identify you (for example by means of a copy of your ID card, unless identification is not possible otherwise).

You also have these rights in relation with other parties that cooperate with us as separate controllers – please contact them directly if you wish to exercise your rights in relation with their processing.

Please note that conditions, exceptions or restrictions apply to these rights under applicable data protection law (for example to protect third parties or trade secrets). We will inform you accordingly where applicable.

In particular, we may need to continue to process and keep your personal data in order to enter into and perform an employment contract with you (in such case, your data will become part of your personnel file with us), to protect our own legitimate interests, such as the assertion, exercise or defense of legal claims, or to comply with legal obligations. To the extent legally permitted, in particular to protect the rights and freedoms of other data subjects and to safeguard legitimate interests, we may also reject a subject request in whole or in part (for example by redacting content that concerns third parties or our trade secrets).

If you do not agree with the way we handle your rights or with our data protection practices, please let us (Section 2) know. If you are located in the EEA, in the United Kingdom or in Switzerland, you also have the right to lodge a complaint with the competent data protection supervisory authority in your country. You can find a list of authorities in the EEA here: . You can reach the UK supervisory authority here: . You can reach the Swiss supervisory authority here: .

12. Do we use online tracking?

We use various techniques on our recruitment portal that allow us and third parties engaged by us to recognize you during your use of our recruitment portal, and possibly to track you across several visits. For further information, please see our general website privacy policy:

13. Can we update this Privacy Notice?

This Privacy Notice is not part of a contract with you. We can change this Privacy Notice at any time. The version published on this website is the current version.

Last updated: 31 August 2023

Work on the Interchain.

Responsibly shaping a new technological paradigm.